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n recent years especially, dams and dykes on

many rivers have proved to be no longer adequate

in withstanding extreme flooding events. In many

cases, they had not been adequately serviced or

upgraded as necessary for a long time, resulting in

ruptures or deep erosion. In view of these very nega-

tive experiences, reviews were undertaken which

widely demonstrated the need to raise or provide

additional sealing for the structures concerned.

Artificial protective structures are essential installa-

tions in populated areas subject to flood risk.

Alongside masonry walls or mobile barriers, earth-

work dykes or dams represent the backbone of tech-

nical flood protection measures.

Retention spaces, such as controllable polders or

flood escape channels, are also barriered by dykes.

By installing inner seals, complete saturation of the

dyke body over lengthy damming periods can be pre-

vented. When structural elements are installed in

those inner shells, the dykes are also able to with-

stand onesided erosion of slope shoulders.